This recipe with show you how to prepare Voronoi diagrams, one way of showing relationships between words in a text and a search term. In order to do this, we will employ the use of word embeddings. These represent individual words in a text as real-valued vectors in a confined vector space. This recipe is based on Kynan Ly's cookbook as seen on this notebook.
This recipe will show how to generate basic concordances of a word and showing it within a textual context. We will use "find and replace" strategy known as regular expressions in this approach. Regex, as it is also known is universal to most programming languages and is a well documented method of parsing text. This recipe is based on Jinman's cookbook.
Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) is a method to convert sets of document terms into a data frame that can then be visualized. The distances expressed in the visualization show how similar, or dissimilar, the contents of one text are to another. This recipe deals with several advanced text analysis concepts and methods. Links are provided to additional information on these terms.
Panda Data frame: https://pandas.pydata.org/
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a method to convert sets of document terms into a data frame that can then be visualized. The distances expressed in the visualization show how similar, or dissimilar, the contents of one text are to another. PCA tries to identify a smaller number of uncorrelated variables, called "principal components" from the dataset. The goal is to explain the maximum amount of variance with the fewest number of principal components. This recipe deals with several advanced text analysis concepts and methods.
Similar to finding People and Characters, finding locations in text is a common exploratory technique. This recipe shows how to extract places, countries, cities from a text. We will use Named-Entity Recognition (NER) module of NLKT library to achieve this. This recipe is based on Jinman Zhang's cookbook.
In this recipe we use 3 ebooks to show how topic analysis can identify the different topics each text represents. We will use Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) approach which is the most common modelling method to discover topics. We can then spice it up with an interactive visualization of the discovered themes. This recipe is based on Zhang Jinman's notebook found on TAPoR.
NB: Any number of texts can be used, we choose 3 for this recipe.
Word frequencies and counts are text analysis methods that return results about the words in a text or set of texts. Counts return the amount of times a word is used in the text, whereas frequencies give a sense of how often a word is used in comparison to others in the text.
Tokenization is the process of splitting a sentence or a chunk of text into its constituent parts. These “tokens” may be the letters, punctuation, words, or sentences. They could even be a combination of all these elements. This recipe was adapted from a Python Notebook written by Kynan Lee for TAPoR.ca.
A common requirement in extracting information is the ability to identify all persons or characters referred to in the text. It is an elaborate process of knowing parts-of-speech in the text, tagging them and retrieving the names associated with those dialogues. The common approach is by using part-of-speech POS-tagger which analyses a sentence and associates words with their lexical descriptor i.e. whether it is an adverb, noun, adjective, conjuntion e.t.c. NLTK is a robust library and therefore the main ingredient of our recipe.
Stemming and Lemmatization are text analysis methods that return the root word of derivative forms of the word. This is done by removing the suffixes of words (stemming) or by comparing the derivative words to a predetermined vocabulary of their root forms (lemmatization). This recipe was adapted from a Python Notebook written by Kynan Lee for TAPoR.ca.